Diabetes and Risk Factors

What is the nature of association between diabetes and risk factors? The condition of diabetes is characterized by the inability of the body either to make or to use insulin-a hormone having the ability to facilitate absorption of glucose in the body. When the production of insulin is stopped or obstructed the blood sugar level increases leading to diabetic condition. Prolonged and uncontrolled diabetes may cause damages to kidneys, heart, nerves, eyes and other vital organs of the body.  According to an estimate only about one third of the people with diabetes are aware about this situation.

Various risk factors are associated with different types of diabetes as follows:

The three major types of diabetes, namely type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes share the same basic characteristics.

Risk factors for Type 1 Diabetes

  • Genetics and family history. The diabetes type 1 in children is associated with genetic and family history.
  • Diseases of the pancreas.  The ability to produce insulin is obstructed due to injury or disease of the pancreas which causes type 1 diabetes..
  • Infection or illness. Some infections and diseases can damage the pancreas which leads to cause type 1 diabetes.

Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

  • Overweight or obesity. Overweight or obesity is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance or prediabetes. Mild diabetes showing the way for developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Ethnic background. Diabetes occurs more often in some Ethnic groups like Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian-Americans,etc.
  • High blood pressure. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a major risk factor for diabetes.
  • History of gestational diabetes. Diabetes which is developed during pregnancy may lead to type 2 diabetes.
  • Sedentary lifestyle. Leading an inactive or idle life may cause type 2 diabetes.
  • Family history. In case of having a family history of diabetes the children are vulnerable to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Age. People over age 45 are put on increasing risk to type 2 diabetes although people with any age group may develop diabetes.

Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes which is developed during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes and is caused  by hormones that are produced  during pregnancy. High blood sugar level in mother may lead to high blood sugar level of the growing baby in mother’s womb. The risk factors for this type of diabetes include-

  • Obesity or being overweight. This condition puts women at risk of gestational diabetes.
  • Previous history. A history of previous gestational diabetes increases the risk of gestational diabetes.
  • Family history. A family history of gestational diabetes increases the risk of gestational diabetes.
  • Age. The risk of gestational diabetes increases with the age of the women having pregnancy.

The various risk factors of diabetes  as outlined and discussed above indicate that diabetes is such a disease which can be developed in any age and any time and can become a serious threat to human health including damages to kidneys, heart, nerves, eyes and other vital organs of the body.. This suggests that adequate steps should be taken as well as physicians should be consulted in right time in order to manage the diabetes and diabetic situation properly.

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Child Care is First

Child is the future leader of any nation.  Child care and child development is included in the prime targets of all developed and developing countries around the world.  “Reduce child mortality” is the millennium development goal.

Justifiably “Child care is  first” option for anyone in the family, especially the parents.  The children face many health hazards during infant age, especially those who are under 5 years of age. The children are normally vulnerable to various seasonal diseases. The children may be attacked with diseases like cold and cough to pneumonia, light respiratory obstruction to bronchitis, etc. anytime and suddenly. So the physicians must be consulted as quickly as possible in case of any symptoms like fever, rash on the body or deep chest in case of coughing.

Sometimes there is much sweating on the body. At the same time there is incidence and development of sweating related problems like ischidrosis. This sweating should be brushed with thin cotton cloth.  The child should be put on washing each day to prevent sweating and ischdrosis. Powder should be used after each bathing or showering of child. Powder may be used after washing hands and feet and before putting the child for sleeping. Care should be taken for child food as well. The child should be given Vitamin C rich food. The food should include oranges, green coconut, green coconut water and other fiber content food. The child will be protected from dehydration if given fruit juice, vegetable soup and adequate quantity of water. The natural food of children should contain adequate quantity of juice. The amount of spices should be reduced comparitably.

The children may be attacked with fever, respiratory obstruction, diarrhea, measles, allergic  problems along with cold and cough. Cold and cough arise out of sweating. Sometimes dry cough develops. The child should not come in touch or in contact with patients suffering from cold and cough.

Child should take bath in warm water at least once a day or child feet should be washed regularly.  The direct air from fan should be avoided. The light warm water with salt, honey has been found useful to be given to child for drinking. Sometimes diarrhea may a become serious problem for children. Saline should be given to drink in case of attack with diarrhea. . Under any circumstances, if any problem turns to be serious, physicians should be consulted in no time. Child and the “Child care is first”.

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What is sudden Tension and Stiffness in feet giving rise to serious physical discomfort?

What are the causes of tension   or stiffness in feet? The various causes for stiffness or tension in feet include excessive use of muscles; seating or lying for a longer period of time inappropriately; dehydration or loss of salt; pregnancy or cold weather. This also happens due to intake of certain medicines like diuretic, anti-psychotic, birth control pill; and thyroid and kidney problems; or declining level of blood circulation. This situation of tension in feet continues for a few seconds or a few minutes and there is painful contraction of muscles during this period. In case of such tension or stiffness of feet, it is advised by physicians to apply hot press beneath the muscle; to message the muscle or to stress the feet; or walk for a while. It is advised by physicians to drink adequate quantity of water, to avoid coffee or alcohol before going to bed, to do stressful activities daily (like jogging, cycling), to eat calcium, magnesium and potassium rich food as found appropriate and suitable.

Nevertheless, the physicians should be consulted in case of very frequent or further deterioration of the problem of tension in feet  or feet stiffness.

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Tumour in Liver causing health hazards

Tumour in liver is called liver abscess. Liver abscess is developed by a kind of bacteria in any location of liver through accumulation of pus inside it. The main causes of tumour in liver are bacteria or parasite.

Kinds of Tumour in Liver

Tumour in liver are of two kinds- one caused by parasites called as amoebic abscess and another is caused by bacteria and called as phylogenic abscess.  The parasite enters the body with contaminated water and food. Mostly this kind of infection cause mild diarrhea or blood dysentery But often this parasite reaches the liver through blood circulation and form a kind of nests in the liver; and produce black or brown pus. In case of bacterial abscess, the bacteria pass through blood vessels and take refuse in any cyst or tumour of liver.

Symptoms of tumour in Liver

The principal  symptoms of tumour in liver is manifested through fever, especially fever with jerking loss of appetite, loss of weight and mild pain in the upper and right abdomen. Sometimes kind of round shape is sensed in the right side of abdomen and it is felt painful when touching. Sometimes this is associated with the symptoms of jaundice or diarrhea.

 Treatment for Tumour in liver

The physician should be consulted as and when necessary. Ultra sonogram and blood tests are done to diagnose the problem. City Scan is also done as and when necessary. Sometimes it may be necessary to remove the pus from the tumour with surgical operation.

Nevertheless, the problem of tumour in liver should not be neglected in any case.

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Compiled by Dr. Sadat Ibne Maleque and Dr. Ishrat Zahan Sumi

Raisin is a potential source of energy for health

Raisin is considered as a potential source of energy or calorie for health. This is a food considered to aid in weight gain and energy gain as well as to aid in digestion. Raisin is such a food that absorbs water or any liquid substance and gets swelled. These particular characteristics of raisin aids in treating indigestion and constipation. Every 100 gm. raisin contains about 3.7 gm insoluble fibers that can influence remove constipation and indigestion. Raisin also contains adequate glucose and fructose. Every 100 gm. raisin contains about 250 calorie. The iron content found in 100 gm. raisin can meet 23% of daily requirement of a person.  This suggests that raisin is useful for patients suffering from anemia as well as during pregnancy.  Raisin also contains anti-oxidants which help to prevent cancer. The composition of raisin include Carbohydrate 26% ,  fibers 15%, , protein 6%, fat 01%, potassium 21%, and iron 10%.  Besides, there are vitamin B complex and copper in it. Raisin is useful to supply energy and to gain weight rapidly after prolonged illness. Raisin has become useful and effective for nutrient and vitamin contents of raisin.

All these above properties of raisin have made raisin a useful and impressive food to aid stabilizing sound health.

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